Stability Of Concrete Armor Unit (Tetrapod) On Rear Side Of The Rubble Mound Structures With Rectangular Super Structure


  • YOUNG-TAEK KIM Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Republic of Korea
  • JONG-IN LEE Chonnam National University, Republic of Korea



Tetrapods, rubble mound breakwaters, hydraulic stability


The coastal structures allow the wave overtopping within a certain quantity. However the extreme wave overtopping could cause the damage of coastal structures. The most of the previous researches for the stability of armor unit were performed about the armor units placed on sea side of coastal structures. A rubble-mound structure is normally composed of a bedding layer and a core of quarry-run stone covered by one or more layers of larger stone and an exterior layer or layers of large quarry stone or concrete armor units. Coastal Engineering Manual (USACE, 2006) suggested the design figures without super structures and showed the ratio of the armor weight for each location of rubble mound structures and it could be known that the same weight ratio was needed to the sea side and harbor side slope of rubble mound structures. In this design figure, the filter rule is applied to the design figures of CEM, that is, the weight ratio for under layer is W/10 for the main armor weight ratio (W) to prevent smaller rocks in the under layer from being pulled through an over layer by wave action




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