Rocking Of Single Layer Armour Units Measured By Embedded Sensors


  • BAS HOFLAND Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
  • DAAN HOUTZAGER Reefy, Netherlands
  • GANGA CALDERA Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique,,Canada
  • ALESSANDRO ANTONINI Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
  • MARCEL VAN GENT Deltares, Netherlands | Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
  • PIETER BAKKER Delta Marine Consultants, Netherlands
  • COCK VAN DER LEM Royal HaskoningDHV, Netherlands



Rocking, armour units, breakwaters


Single layer randomly placed armour units are used in many rubble mound breakwaters around the world. For these armour layers, breakage of armour units due to rocking could be a major damage mechanism, but no good methods exist to evaluate and quantify rocking. The aim of the study is to quantify the rocking impact velocities for irregularly placed single layer armour units. This study utilizes embedded Rocking Sensors to obtain the first measurements of rocking impact velocities of single layer armour units. More generally, the paper (Hofland et al. 2023) shows how novel measurement techniques can be used for the investigating the stability of single layer armour layers.



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