Hybrid Modelling Of Wave Overtopping At Rubble Mound Breakwaters


  • MARISOL IRIAS MATA Deltares, The Netherlands
  • MARCEL R.A. VAN GENT Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands




Wave overtopping, Coastal structures, Rubble mound structures, OpenFOAM, Wave flume tests


Wave overtopping at rubble mound structures is one of the most important phenomena affecting the hydraulic performance of these coastal structures. In addition to the design of coastal structures, also the climate adaptation of coastal structures has become more important due to sea level rise. Adding a crest wall to an existing structure, increasing the height of a crest wall, adding a berm, or increasing the width or height of a berm, can be effective measures to account for effects of sea level rise. For this purpose, the individual effects of a crest walls and a berm need to be predicted, but also the combination of both (see for instance Van Gent, 2019, and Van Gent and Teng, 2023).

Wave overtopping estimates are generally based on physical modelling in wave flumes and wave basins. Numerical modelling of wave overtopping provides additional opportunities to examine wave overtopping for a wide variety of structure geometries. The combination of physical modelling with numerical modelling is referred to as hybrid modelling. To provide design guidelines for rubble mound structures with a crest wall and for structures with a berm in the seaward slope, Van Gent et al (2022) provides design guidelines based on physical model tests. Numerical modelling provides opportunities to examine wave overtopping at structures with a crest wall and a berm to further extend guidelines for the design and (climate) adaptation of rubble mound structures. In Irías Mata and Van Gent (2023) guidelines based on physical modelling have been extended based on numerical modeling with OpenFOAM to examine the influence of several aspects such as the wave steepness, crest wall and recurved parapet, berm, and structure slope on wave overtopping at rubble mound breakwaters. Although the present work focusses on wave overtopping, also forces on crest walls have been examined using the applied numerical model, see for instance Jacobsen et al, 2018, and Irías Mata et al, 2023.




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