Armor Damage On Groins Under Ship Wave Attack Using Field Data


  • PATRICIA MARES-NASARRE Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands
  • OSWALDO MORALES-NÁPOLES Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands
  • BAS HOFLAND Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands
  • GREGOR MELLING Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW)



Armor Damage, Ship Waves, Field Measurements, Probabilistic Dependence, Rock Groyne, Wave-Structure Interaction, Rock Armor


The severity of damages to riverine structures, such as groynes or revetments, across German estuaries has increased in the past years due to the increase in the ship-induced loads. However, few studies can be found in the literature focused on the damage of rock slopes under ship wave attack. In this study, the field data of a rock-armored groyne (lateral slope 1/4 and rocks with nominal diameter Dn50»12.6cm and high density ρs=3.7t/m3) tracked for a year by Melling et al. (2020) is analyzed; the field campaign began after the structure was rebuilt and finished when the structure already presented severe damage. During this field campaign, the incident ship-induced primary waves and water levels were recorded, and laser scans of the groyne armor were taken. Using those field laser scans, damage curves along the life of the structure were derived. Also, ship data from the AIS was retrieved. Then, each increment of the damage (increment of the dimensionless eroded area, ΔSe) was related to a ship-wave event and a passing ship. The most significant variable to describe ΔSe was found to be the primary wave height Hp, while the best explanatory variables for Hp were the partial blockage factor, the ship length and width and the relative velocity of the ship. The shape of the dependence between these variables is also analyzed by pairs using copula space. A clear tail dependence is observed between several pairs. For instance, the pair ΔSe and Hp presents upper tail dependence, meaning that the high values of ΔSe and Hp are more correlated than the smaller ones. This implies that models more complex than Gaussian copula, which is commonly used in Coastal Engineering applications, might be needed to model the probabilistic dependence between the variables.




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