Digital Profiler Based On A Low-Cost 3D-Scanner To Evaluate The Hydraulic Performance Of Homogeneous Low-Crested Structures


  • SERGIO MUÑOZ-PALAO Institute of Transport and Territory, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
  • PILAR DÍAZ-CARRASCO Algeciras Polytechnic School of Engineering, Universidad de Cádiz, Spain
  • JORGE MOLINES Institute of Transport and Territory, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
  • M. ESTHER GÓMEZ-MARTÍN Institute of Transport and Territory, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
  • JOSEP R. MEDINA Institute of Transport and Territory, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain



Low-crested structure, HLCS, Cubipod, laser scanner


In order to evaluate the hydraulic performance of breakwaters, mechanical profilers were first used in wave flumes. Vertical bars and rolling wheels have been used to track the breakwater shape. Once surveyed, useful hydraulic parameters were able to be measured (e.g., envelope shape and eroded area). Nevertheless, the methodologies based on mechanical profilers have some limitations: they are intrusive, require specific equipment and are time-consuming. On the other hand, non-intrusive laser scanners can also be used; recent studies proved the feasibility of non-intrusive fast methods of surveying with 3D-scanning, (see Musumeci et al., 2018). These instruments are fast and reliable at capturing the shape of the breakwater in real-time. However, this method did not consider the distortion caused by light refraction. Laser scanners usually require to measure models in dry conditions, which is not efficient in time and resources. Regardless of the drawbacks when using non-intrusive laser scanners as digital profilers, the distortion can be corrected. The data suits for the usage of Neural Networks (NN) that can be trained to correct distortion.

This study is focused on Homogeneous Low-Crested Structures (HLCS) which is a new typology of Low-Crested Structures (LCS), made out large quarry stones or concrete armor units that are suitable to reduce shoreline erosion on degraded coastlines and natural environments. HLCS can be classified as reef-type breakwaters and are considered an environmentally-friendly solution that fulfils two purposes: to protect beaches nearby and to enhance coral regeneration and marine colonization, (see Medina et at., 2020). For the correct design of HLCS or conventional LCS, it is required to evaluate both the hydraulic stability and wave transmission (see van der Meer and Daemen, 1994). HLCS are structures without core which may erode under intense wave attack. Breakwater damage and crest freeboard must be estimated depending on incident wave conditions. The breakwater envelope evolves and finds an equilibrium state related to the incident wave conditions in which the crest freeboard and the transmitted wave energy levels may change.

The goal of this study is to provide a low-cost non-intrusive methodology based on 3D-scanning to study the hydraulic performance of mound breakwaters, specifically for Cubipod HLCS. This surveying procedure allows to obtain the real-magnitude shape of the envelope of the HLCS, even with a certain water level. The methodology mimics previous surveying techniques and provides relevant hydraulic and structural parameters (crest freeboard, damage, envelope shape, etc.) that can be then used to study the hydraulic performance of breakwaters.




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Extended abstracts