Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Full-Electric Ship Energy Management with Multiple Objectives


  • Charlotte L ̈offler Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
  • Rinze Geertsma Netherlands Defense Academy, Den Helder, Netherlands
  • Despoina Mitropoulou RH Marine, Schiedam, Netherlands
  • Henk Polinder Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
  • Andrea Coraddu Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands




Energy Management, Full-Electric Vessel, ECMS, Multiobjective Optimization, NOx emission


Optimal energy management is still a challenge in full-electric vessels. New degrees of flexibility in the energy management resulting from the load sharing between multiple, heterogenous power sources lead to a suboptimal solution using rule-based control. Therefore, advanced control strategies present a solution to the challenge of finding the optimal control input for a nonlinear multi-objective power and energy problem in sufficient time. As additional benefit, advanced control allows to incorporate multiple objectives in the optimization such as minimization of several emissions, operational costs, and component degradation. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) is a strategy for instantaneous optimization, which is promising for applications in vessels with a high degree of uncertainty in the load profile. It incorporates multiple objectives by assigning equivalent cost factors in the cost function, allowing a flexible expansion of the control problem. In this paper, we present a novel ECMS-based control strategy for a full-electric vessel with the ability to react flexibly to changing mission conditions. First, we define the objectives for the control problem, in this study \ce{CO2} production, hazardous emission production, fuel consumption, energy cost, and the degradation of the battery.
Second, we develop a pareto-front approach for a-posteriori definition of the equivalent cost factors. To showcase energy consumption reduction, we use a benchmark control based on state-of-the-art control strategies. A full-electric case study vessel with high uncertainty in the load profile is chosen to evaluate the proposed controller. Several different load profiles are generated and tested to evaluate the performance of the ECMS controller in dealing with different types of loads. The results will demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed novel control strategy in reducing energy consumption while minimizing other hazardous emission outputs and preserving the health of the battery.




How to Cite

L ̈offler C., Geertsma, R., Mitropoulou, D., Polinder, H., & Coraddu, A. (2024). Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Full-Electric Ship Energy Management with Multiple Objectives. Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems 2023. https://doi.org/10.59490/moses.2023.673

Conference Proceedings Volume


Modeliing and Control