Monitoring (N)ZEB dwellings in the Netherlands Lessons learned from current practices


  • Olivia Guerra-Santin Department of the Built Environment | Eindhoven University of Technology | The Netherlands
  • Twan Rovers Chair of Sustainable Building Technology | School of Business | Building & Technology | Saxion University of Applied Sciences | The Netherlands
  • Laure Itard Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment |Delft University of Technology | The Netherlands



Energy monitoring, (n)zeb dwellings, occupant behaviour, performance gap


Monitoring the energy performance of very low and zero energy buildings is fundamental to evaluate the efforts made to transition into an energy neutral built environment. Post occupancy monitoring has been embedded into current practice, supported by the availability of smart meters and affordable sensor technology. However, there is still a lack of standardised monitoring guidance, which complicates the comparison between projects. In this study, we reviewed reports and publicly available documents related to the monitoring of low energy and zero energy projects in the Netherlands. A total of 12 studies reporting on 65 projects containing 4,400 dwellings were analysed. These included both new and renovated housing built in the last decade. This study aims to provide an overview of actual energy performance in energy renovation projects across the Netherlands. It also analyses the difference with predicted energy performance and analyses the perceptions of residents involved in low and zero energy renovations. It answers questions such as: What energy and behavioural data is being gathered through energy monitoring in the residential sector (related to monitoring low and zero energy buildings/dwellings)? How is the data currently being utilized? What does the data tell us about actual energy use and resident perceptions? How can monitoring be improved to help develop better energy models, and help building owners optimize their investments in energy renovation projects? The results indicate that even though monitoring building performance in the Netherlands could be considered common practice, the results are seldomly reported or communicated. Furthermore, very few projects monitor indoor conditions and occupants’ behaviour. As a consequence, the performance gaps found in these projects are not fully understood. These findings are summarised to provide an overview of the main goals for monitoring from a practical point of view. These findings are used to provide recommendations for monitoring setups according to the final goals.




How to Cite

Guerra-Santin, O. ., Rovers, T. ., & Itard, L. . (2022). Monitoring (N)ZEB dwellings in the Netherlands Lessons learned from current practices. CLIMA 2022 Conference.

Conference Proceedings Volume


Health & Comfort